The bench press is an easy-to-perform exercise. The American College of Sports Medicine has standardized norms for what a typical high school student should be able to perform; furthermore, this information is segmented between genders so that you can compare males to males and females to females. A good bench press weight depends on your goals. This can include being better than half of all high school-age students or even better than 75 percent or 90 percent of your classmates. These norms are based off of your strength ratio, which requires you to find out your maximal bench press weight.
The ACSM model for assessing upper body strength with the bench press requires you to determine your strength ratio. Strength ratio is calculated by dividing your one rep max, or 1RM, by your weight. 1RM is determined by one to five progressively heavier trials with five minute rest periods between trials, until you arrive at a weight load you can lift only once with good form. For instance, if you are a 150-pound male with a 1RM of 225 lbs., then 225/150 = 1.5 strength ratio. Strength ratios allow for individual differences in bodyweight to make an equitable comparison between athletes of different sizes. For instance, it wouldn¡¯t be fair to compare the amount of weight a 150-pound teenager can bench press to what a 250-pound teen could press. Bigger people should be able to lift larger weights, and the strength ratio helps to account for those differences.
If you are a male under the age of 20 and want to be in the 50th percentile or higher, you need a strength ratio of 1.13 or higher. To be classified into the top 25 percent of males under 20, you are expended to have a strength ratio of 1.29 or higher. To be in the top 10 percent, you need to have a strength ratio of 1.46, which is roughly 220 lbs. for a 150-pound male.
If you are a high school-age female, a strength ratio of 0.63 would classify you as being better than 50 percent of your peers. To be in the top 25 percent you need a strength ratio of 0.76. If you are looking to be in the top 10 percent, you need to attain a strength ratio of 0.83. Women have generally lower upper body strength compared to men in both absolute and relative terms, and these values reflect that. A high school female trying to be in the top 10 percent would need a maximum lift of 83. lbs if she weighed 100 pounds.
Although the bench press gives you a clear view of your upper body strength, it can be a dangerous exercise if you have little to no previous weight lifting experience. This is especially true for high school-age students who typically have limited exposure to resistance training and who have not yet developed full coordination and control of their body after puberty. Remember to always have a spotter assist you when bench pressing to ensure your safety when performing the bench press. Also note that these norms are only a guideline for what is classified as ¡°a good amount of weight¡± to bench press. Realistically, your own personal progress is a better measure of a good amount of weight to bench because individual differences such as limb length and how long you have been training are not built into the norms.
Basketball sleeves come in all different colors and designs. You will find players and NBA fans supporting these sleeves. While their initial purpose was to protect players from arm injuries, the basketball sleeve has become a staple item in the wardrobes of NBA players and their fans. Allen Iverson first popularized the basketball sleeve during the 2000-2001 NBA season.
A basketball sleeve is worn as an accessory — similar to a wrist band. The sleeve runs from the wrist to the bicep and is very similar to a compression bandage, according to “Psychology Today.” A basketball sleeve is generally made from nylon or spandex. You may also hear a basketball sleeve referred to as an arm sleeve.
In 2000, Allen Iverson of the National Basketball Association began wearing a basketball sleeve. This sleeve was worn to protect Iverson’s right elbow as he suffered from bursitis during the 2000-2001 NBA season. Bursitis is a painful condition that occurs when a fluid-filled sac known as the bursae — which cushions your bones, tendons and muscles — becomes inflamed, according to MayoClinic.com. Other players, including the Denver Nuggets’ Carmelo Anthony, started wearing a basketball sleeve to protect an arm post-surgery.
The basketball sleeve was the most popular non-apparel item sold by the NBA in 2008, according to the NBA store. Ever since the 2000-2001 season — the season of Iverson’s bursitis — fans began wearing sleeves as fashion statements. Other players — including LeBron James and Kobe Bryant — have been seen sporting sleeves without any known injuries.
Many players who have worn basketball sleeves to protect an injury never seem to lose the sleeve long after the injury has healed, according to “Psychology Today.” The placebo effect was first known in 1955. H.K. Beecher evaluated 15 clinical trials related to 15 different diseases. He found that 35 percent of 1,082 patients in these studies were relieved of their symptoms by placebo treatments alone.
Digestion involves a complicated series of events that provide the necessary fuel and nutrients for proper body function. While eating before exercising might seem like a good idea, it can actually hamper your workout due to the stomach upset you may experience. Digestion requires several hours to fully metabolize foods. Indeed, research published in 2010 in the “Journal of Physiology” found that exercising in a fasted state helps the muscles adapt better to exercise.
Before you exercise, your body undergoes a five-step process to digest any foods you have eaten. Digestion begins in the mouth, where enzymes begin breaking down foods. The food will then move through your system to the stomach. The stomach prepares food for absorption by the intestines; it will not absorb most of the food you’ve eaten, according to the textbook “Principles of Anatomy and Physiology.” Nutrient and water absorption occur primarily in the small and large intestines. Indigestible materials are then eliminated from the body. Food will leave your stomach about two to six hours after you eat it.
The types of food you eat can influence how long digestion takes and what impact it has on your exercise. Generally, your body can easily digest simple carbohydrates like fruits. Part of the reason lies in their chemical structure. Digestion, after all, is basically a process of chemical reactions. Proteins, on the other hand, are chemically more complex. These foods will take longer to digest. Because they stay in your stomach longer, you may experience nausea from exercising too soon after eating high protein foods.
In the gastrointestinal system, the pancreas and liver play vital roles in metabolism of the foods you eat. The pancreas will help control your blood sugar. The glycemic index measures how quickly sugar enters your bloodstream. The higher the GI, the more quickly this process occurs. In terms of exercise, the availability of sugar will help fuel your muscles, particularly during intense exercise. During vigorous exercise, the body relies more on carbohydrates for energy.
You should wait at least two hours after eating before exercising. When you begin to work out, your body switches gears and goes into fight-or-flight mode. Digestion slows as your body directs blood flow to your muscles. Likewise, the body directs energy to the muscles. The body has evolved so that digestion is a passive process, not the body’s primary function during activity. If you wait to exercise, you can take advantage of the rise in blood sugar and the availability of energy for a more effective workout.
According to a 2011 Harris Interactive Poll, football is the most popular sport in the United States, with basketball checking in at third. However, the similarities between the two sports end there, as the two have little in common besides being two of the most popular team sports.
Both basketball and football are played with leather or composite leather balls, but the similarities end there. Basketballs are round and give a good true bounce every time. They have even become smart devises. The 94Fifty has sensors in the ball’s exterior which can transmit data in 100 milliseconds to an Android device. Footballs have an oblong shape and take some weird bounces when they hit the ground. The football’s shape is designed to fly better in the air and be easier to catch. In addition, basketballs are larger and heavier than footballs.
Basketball courts are much shorter and narrower than football fields. According to the National Basketball Association, regulation basketball courts measure 94 feet by 50 feet. I Sport notes that professional football fields are 120 yards by 53.3 yards, or 360 feet by 160 feet. Indoor basketball courts usually are made of wood, while football fields use natural grass or a synthetic.
Both basketball and football are considered team sports since there are several people playing at once. Basketball teams are permitted to play with five players on the court at one time, while football teams play with 11 at a time. Basketball teams usually have between 12 and 15 players on the roster, while football rosters can range from 50 in professional play to 85 in college games.
Football and basketball have decidedly different styles of play based on the rules. Football is a full-contact sport, with tackles and physical confrontations and collisions on every play. Basketball is considered a non-contact sport and by rule physical contact in basketball is a violation that can result in a foul. Basketball games are more high scoring than football even though basketball teams are awarded only 2 or 3 points for a made field goal and 1 point for a made free throw. Football grants 6 points for a touchdown, 3 points for a field goal and 2 points for a safety, but scoring is much less frequent than in basketball.
Football games are played for significantly longer times than basketball games. Football games at the professional and college level have 60 minutes of game play, while high school football plays 48-minute games. Basketball plays 48-minute games at the pro level, 40-minute games in college and 32-minute games in high school. It is important to note that both football and basketball games have several stoppages due to timeouts, fouls or penalties and halftime, which means both last much longer than the game play time.
Hindsight is 20/20. Sure, it’s easy to make fun of the Mars CEO who said “no” to Steven Spielberg when offered to feature M&Ms in the movie “E.T.” And it’s tempting to wonder how Blockbuster could have passed on the chance to buy Netflix for a bargain and then stubbornly refuse to go digital.
But who could have predicted that “E.T.” would become one of the most popular movies of all time? (Um, Spielberg had only made “Jaws” five years earlier.) And why would anyone have thought that moviegoers would abandon video rental stores for the convenience of online streaming? (Well, because it makes complete sense.)
On second thought, let’s stop apologizing for our enviable position in the present and just rip into the following 10 companies for making the worst business decisions ever. Who’s up first?
Soccer players must learn fundamental skills and tactical awareness to succeed during competitive games. Important soccer skills to master include ball control, passing, dribbling, shooting and defending. Tactical awareness involves the ability to know your role and have positional awareness on the field, and possessing the ability to make good decisions.
The fundamental skills of soccer are vital to the development of a soccer player. You must have the ability to trap the ball and keep possession for your team to be effective during a competitive game. A high level of repetition is the best way to learn fundamental soccer skills. Soccer skills should be practiced initially under no defensive pressure, with the coach focusing on correct technique. For example, to practice dribbling, the coach should have players dribble a ball around a 20-yard box focusing on technique and keeping the ball under control. Passive resistance should be added by placing a number of cones down and teaching turns to avoid the obstacles. You can next pracrtice dribbling with two or three defenders inside the box attempting to win the ball, and providing game-like defensive pressure.
Tactical awareness largely refers to a soccer player having the ability to make effective decisions during a soccer game. You can practice soccer tactics by using group drills that work on skills and forcing players to make decisions quickly in game-like situations. Playing three attackers against two defenders toward the goal can be good tactical practice. The attacking team can begin each repetition 25 yards out from goal. On the coach’s signal, they begin play, attempting to score a goal with the two defenders attempting to stop them. The soccer coach can use this drill to practice teaching players when to dribble and when it is best to pass to a teammate. The decision of when to shoot should also be taught in this drill.
Players should have an understanding of their role on the field, whether it be defender, midfielder or attacker. Regardless of position, all soccer players should have the tactical awareness to get open and provide a passing option when a teammate is in possession of the ball. When defending, a soccer player must have the ability to put pressure on the ball if they are the nearest defender, or to cover an off-the-ball runner, providing defensive balance.
Even if an athlete is young and in peak physical shape, chest pain is a symptom that must always be taken seriously. While most bouts of chest pain in children and teens don’t point to a serious heart problem, playing sports can aggravate existing, and sometimes fatal, heart conditions in teen athletes. Since the American Heart Association reports that one in every 30,000 to 50,000 high school athletes will die of sudden cardiac arrest, it’s important to seek medical advice if you think your teen is at risk.
The most common cause of chest pain in children and teens is a catchall condition called chest wall pain, which is painful, but relatively harmless. Chest wall pain can be quite frightening if mistaken for cardiac arrest while an athletic teen is physically exerting himself. It often appears during sporting events when a player is hit or falls and injures his ribs, sternum or other parts of his back and chest. Respiratory infection and bad coughs are other potential causes. Chest wall pain often does not require treatment and will fade away on its own, but teens experiencing chest pain of any kind should see a doctor to rule out a more serious diagnosis.
While the vast majority of teen chest pain is relatively harmless, teenage athletes are susceptible to serious and potentially fatal heart conditions. Vigorous physical activity can exacerbate an undetected heart problem and trigger sudden cardiac arrest. Athletes are more prone to sudden cardiac arrest because they push their bodies harder than sedentary teens who may unknowingly suffer from the same heart abnormalities. Preexisting conditions that lead to fatal cardiac episodes include some types of arrhythmia, Marfan syndrome and, most commonly, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which involves the thickening of the walls of the heart.
Although a cardiac arrest related to one of the above conditions may seem sudden, most affected teens experience some symptoms and warning signs. In addition to chest pain, many at-risk teen athletes experience bouts of fainting, dizziness and shortness of breath. If your teen experiences any of these while playing sports, take him to a doctor immediately even if you think there might be another explanation for the symptoms. If anyone in your family has experienced cardiac arrest or a sudden unexplained death, ask your doctor to test your teen for hidden heart defects even if he has yet to experience any chest pain or other symptoms.
The American Heart Association recommends that all young athletes be screened for heart abnormalities before entering any strenuous program of physical activity. Doctors can screen teens for conditions like hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and Marfan syndrome by asking questions about family and personal health history and performing a few physical tests. If there is concern, EKG and echocardiogram tests can usually detect undiagnosed heart conditions. Once diagnosed, teens can talk to their doctors about treatment and whether or not they can continue to play competitive sports.
Becoming a professional athlete might be a dream for some sports enthusiasts and athletes, but it¡¯s not always the best bet. Intense competition, a life on the road and grueling practice might take some of the fun out of enjoying a sport from an amateur standpoint. Although amateur and professional athletes have a few things in common, such as some shared skills and passion for their sport, the primary differences lies in the fact that for professionals, performance within a sport can make or break their careers.
Getting paid is the litmus test of professional versus amateur athletes. Not all pro athletes are millionaires, however. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the median annual pay for professional athletes in 2010 was $43,740. In contrast, amateur athletes do not get paid for competing. They might receive perks related to participating in their league — for example, team gear or sponsored post-game dinners from local businesses — but they do not receive paychecks for playing.
In some cases, professional athletes might be older than amateur athletes because of rules established within sports organizations. For example, the NFL has rules in place barring young athletes from playing professionally directly after graduating high school; the idea is that they¡¯ll protect their younger bodies from injury and have the chance to complete some higher education while continuing to develop their athletics chops in collegiate competitions. “The Sport Journal” states that some sports critics dispute this reasoning, though, saying that it allows amateur athletes to be exploited since they¡¯re not being paid to play while in college. In some sports, younger athletes might opt to be home schooled and accept formal sponsorship in order to become professional earlier in their careers.
Amateur athletes might play baseball, tennis or volleyball just for fun, getting together on the weekend or after work for a pick-up game or to compete against other recreational teams. Professional athletes must frequently compete on weekends, evenings and holidays, depending on their competition schedule, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Time away from home can quickly accrue as pro athletes travel around the country, or around the world, during competition season.
Playing any sport involves some degree of risks, and some high-impact sports can be quite dangerous. Broken bones, concussions and other injuries create the potential for high medical bills and extended physical therapy. Some professional athletes might receive extensive medical benefits and insurance coverage as part of their contracts; other professionals or semi-pro athletes might receive travel money and contest fees but be expected to purchase their own health insurance. Amateur athletes who become injured will be personally liable for their injuries, covering medical costs of game-related injuries with their own coverage or paying out-of-pocket.
There’s a big debate going on that you might not be aware of in the field of Egyptology, according to New Scientist. It’s about whether or not the boy pharaoh Tutankhamen had a left club foot. As you might guess, one side says yes he did, the other says no he didn’t. What’s lucky is that some of these very same people are in possession of Tutankhamen’s corpse and have sufficient technology to look inside it without even touching it, using things like fMRI and x-ray machines. And they have looked at the king’s left foot and it does indeed appear that it is clubbed. The rub comes with whether what appears to be a congenital clubfoot or if it’s the result of damage done to the corpse in the decades since British explorer Howard Carter first raided his tomb in 1922.
Clubfoot is a birth defect where the tendons and muscles in the calf of the affected leg are underdeveloped. As a result, the foot is allowed to grow at an angle, often to the point where the sole of the foot is turned vertically or even to the point where the positions of it and the top of the foot are switched. It’s idiopathic, says the Mayo Clinic, as we have no idea what causes it. These days we do know that it’s highly treatable without surgery, it sometimes runs in families, that it occurs in about one of every 1,000 births and that women in families with a history of clubfootedness who smokes while pregnant increase the likelihood their children will be born with a clubfoot by 20 times. Of course, mothers in Tutankhamen’s time didn’t know this last part, especially considering that tobacco wasn’t domesticated until about a full thousand years after Tutankhamen lived and its domestication was carried out in North America rather than North Africa.
Researchers in the camp who believe that the clubfoot is really just a damaged foot suspect the damage may have been done sometime in the last couple decades (which makes me, in turn, suspect that it’s an open secret that some Egyptologist in the recent past is known to have handled Tut’s left foot overly roughly but won’t fess up and that’s what’s really going on here). As fortune would have it, there was a set of x-rays taken in 1968 of Tutankhamen. As is typical of Tutankhamen’s effect on the fortune of others, the x-rays are unpublished. Someone remembered they’d seen an x-ray of the left foot published in an obscure book in the late 1970s, but upon inspection that image turned out to be an inverted reproduction of the x-ray of the right foot. The mystery of whether King Tutankhamen was clubfooted continues.
If found to be clubfooted, King Tut would join a fairly accomplished club, as it were. Olympic gold medal figure skater Kristi Yamaguchi, actors/comedians Damon Wayans and Dudley Moore, Olympic gold medal soccer player Mia Hamm, 19th-century politician Thaddeus Stevens and football greats Charles Woodson and Troy Aikman all were born with clubfootedness. And last but not least: So, too, was infamous CIA scientist Sidney Gottlieb, who was responsible not only for the MK-ULTRA program, but is also reputed to have created Agent Orange. And that is how King Tut is related to the CIA.
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Tom Landry was the head coach of the Dallas Cowboys for the first 29 years of their existence.
During that time, he delivered 13 division championships, five NFC titles, and Super Bowl victories in January of 1972 and 1978. Landry’s Cowboys, dubbed “America’s Team,” also played in the 1971, 1976, and 1979 Super Bowls.
The always-stoic Landry began his coaching career as a player-coach with the New York Giants in 1954 and 1955.
A former University of Texas standout, Landry (born 1924) became a Giants full-time defensive assistant in 1956.
By the time he became the head coach of the expansion Cowboys four years later, he was already widely recognized as one of the sharpest young coaches in the game.
As expected, it took a few years before the Cowboys experienced a winning season. But once they did, it seemed they’d never again falter.
Under Landry, the Cowboys posted 20 consecutive winning seasons from 1966-85.
“That’s probably the single most amazing accomplishment of his career,” said former Cowboys general manager Tex Schramm.
Landry’s coaching career was full of amazing accomplishments. He perfected the “flex defense,” a variation of the basic 4-3 alignment, which he used while an assistant coach.
Later, when teams copied his system, he simply came up with multiple offense schemes to attack the very defenses he developed.
In the 1970s, the innovative coach borrowed a page from the San Francisco 49ers’ play book of the early 1960s and gave new life to the “shotgun” formation. Roger Staubach, the Cowboys’ shotgun trigger man, flourished under the system.
In the 1980s, Landry embraced and helped develop the “situation substitution” concept of inserting players on certain downs for specific assignments.
Landry’s coaching career came to an abrupt end early in 1989, when a new Cowboys owner decided to bring in his own coach. Even then, Landry showed his class when he said, “There’s always life after football.”
He compiled a 270-178-6 lifetime record, and he was elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1990.