How Does Age Affect Exercise?

Regular exercise can improve your health no matter your age, but as you get older, you might notice changes that affect your activity level. Muscle mass begins to decrease as you age, which can throw off your balance as well as slow your metabolism. You might find yourself more motivated to exercise as you get older to help ward off chronic diseases, control excess weight and stay active for life.
The amount of muscle and fatty tissue you have will change with age. Your body fat can increase by up to 30 percent, which leads to a loss of lean muscle tissue and can affect your sense of balance. This can make it difficult for you to perform exercise activities you once enjoyed. The loss of muscle also lowers your metabolism, because your body uses more energy to maintain muscle tissue than it does fat. As a result, you might find it harder to keep excess pounds at bay once you get older, and you may need to work out more often than you used to.
Your energy levels might decrease with age, making the idea of working out unappealing. But if you keep up with your workouts, you can actually improve your energy level and mood. Regular exercise can enhance the health of your cardiovascular system, helping your body to circulate your blood more efficiently and boost your energy throughout the day. It can also ward off depression and stress and help you sleep better, and all of these benefits will motivate you to get more activity into your life as you age.
To stay healthy with age, you need to take care of your body, and this means doing things that help prevent certain chronic diseases. Your bone mass begins to decline once your enter your thirties, putting you at risk for conditions such as osteoporosis. If you are concerned about developing this condition, perform more weight-bearing exercises, such as running and tennis. Regular cardio activity will also help you control high blood pressure and high cholesterol, as well as ward off type 2 diabetes and some kinds of cancer.
No matter your fitness level, mood or motivation, regular exercise can help you stay active for life. Change your routine according to your concerns as you age. For instance, to help with balance, take up yoga or tai chi. Take a dance class to strengthen your bones, or go for a daily jog to improve your heart health and boost your mood. Don¡¯t let age keep you from the activities you enjoy, and look for exercises that fit your fitness level and goals.

How to Build Stamina for Soccer

Soccer is a physically demanding game that requires a great level of physical fitness. Soccer requires you to walk, sprint and jog for a range of distance over a prolonged period of time. A high level of stamina is required to be a successful soccer player. Soccer players must have the ability to dribble, pass or get into open space when their team is in possession. Players must have the ability to quickly recover and track runs when possession is lost and their team is defending.
Perform regular cardiovascular exercise to build stamina for soccer. The Sports Fitness Advisor website cited research performed by Umbro Conditioning in 1997. The research studied professional players and stated over a 90 minute soccer game, the average player spent 40 to 59 minutes jogging or running. Bearing this in mind, it is wise for you to simulate these distances in your stamina training. Youth soccer games run typically for 70 minutes with variations according to age. You should aim for 30 to 50 minutes of cardiovascular exercise to simulate a soccer game. If you find that challenging, you could split into two separate runs. Vary your cardiovascular routine by incorporating cycling or swimming if it becomes repetitive.
Include sprinting in your training to build stamina for playing soccer. The research by Umbro Conditioning states that 10 percent to 15 percent of a soccer game is spent sprinting. To build stamina for soccer you must adjust your body to sprinting and recovering quickly to jog or sprint again. The Sports Fitness Advisor website recommends a series of 15 to 20 yards of sprinting with recovery time in between. An example of sprint training would be to perform 10 sets of 20-yard sprints with a 30 second break between. This would build stamina and increase your recovery rate after a sprint.
Incorporate circuit training onto your physical fitness training. Circuit training increases stamina and also builds muscle strength with the use of resistance exercises using your own body weight. For the game of soccer, Sports Fitness Advisor recommends stations that require you to exercise for 30 to 60 seconds between rest periods. Exercises included in circuit training can be push-ups, sit-ups and squat jumps.
Consume a healthy and balanced diet. Your stamina and physical fitness levels will be directly impacted by the fuel you put into your body. Foods low in fat and high in carbohydrates make up the core of a good diet for a soccer player. A healthy diet will significantly impact your ability to build stamina, and you should avoid soda and sugary snacks. You should also stay fully hydrated at all times with water or sports drink.
Conduct a regular stretching and flexibility routine. It is crucial that you stretch thoroughly before and after your training to build stamina. Proper stretching will keep you healthy. Muscle stretches and pulls can result from not stretching properly. An injury will halt your training routine and hinder your ability to build stamina.

What Equipment Is Used for Soccer?

Brazilian soccer legend Pele played as a child with a grapefruit or a ball of rags, and even today¡¯s pickup games with a real ball may rely on just plastic cones or driftwood to serve as goals. While soccer¡¯s minimalist equipment list allows it to be played worldwide, including in the poorest hamlets, official league games and internationally sanctioned matches follow equipment rules set down by FIFA, the international governing body of soccer.
Soccer at the adult and over-12 age levels requires two goals measuring 8 feet tall by 24 feet wide draped with a net. Slender, flexible flags mark the four corners of the pitch. Younger players can use smaller goals, measuring as little as about 4 by 6 feet for under-6 players, and No. 3 or No. 4 balls, while the adult ball size is a No. 5. Summer tournaments involving five players or less often use small, portable goals, similar to the U-6 size.
Mandatory shinguards protect players from errant kicks and hard-struck balls. Official league games also require the wearing of numbered jerseys, shorts, footwear and long socks to cover the shinguards. The referee must inspect and approve other equipment, such as arm casts, although state soccer associations may ban these altogether. Protective headgear, facemasks and knee and arm protectors made of soft materials are permitted under FIFA rules, as is protective eyewear. Footwear must be appropriate to the playing surface, with outdoor cleats not permitted on indoor artificial surfaces, which require special indoor shoes.
Radio technology allowing communication between players and technical staff is not permitted. Clothing and gear cannot feature political slogans. You cannot wear jewelry, including necklaces, rings, bracelets, earrings, leather bands and rubber bands. Jewelry must be removed and cannot be covered with tape. Wedding bands, however, are usually acceptable. The referees as well cannot wear any jewelry except a watch.
Goalkeepers need gloves that protect their hands from the ball¡¯s impact and allow a firm grasp of the typically synthetic surface of a modern ball. They must also wear a jersey of a different color to either team¡¯s field players. They are permitted to wear tracksuit bottoms.
Coaches can make ample use of plastic cones, plastic disks and training bibs called pinnies to organize a practice. Small portable goals and rebounding nets can enable more touches on the ball for the players. At higher levels, trainers may set up agility ladders and use speed parachutes to improve speed.

How to Play Frisbee Football

Like any sport that evolved from another activity, the rules of Frisbee football are somewhat fluid. Further enhancements to the basics of Frisbee football have developed into an internationally recognized sport called Ultimate Frisbee. You can enjoy the basic fun of team sports with a flying disk while modifying the rules to fit your circumstances. Once you have the basics in place, you can add new rules or tailor your game to fit the playing area or number of players.
Assign an equal number of players to each team. A standard number is seven players to a side, but you can expand the teams to accommodate everyone who wants to play, as long as the field is large enough.
Define the boundaries of the field and the location of the end zones before beginning. The game plays out much like regular football, so if a youth league football field already is marked off at a local park, use that. Otherwise, use natural boundaries in an open field like walkways or tree lines to indicate out-of-bounds areas, and set out four cones or markers to denote the end zones.
¡°Kick off¡± by throwing the Frisbee down the field to the receiving team. Each team should line up at a specified point, either at the goal lines if you are on a small field or at the 20-yard line if you are on a marked football field. No player may cross that line until the Frisbee is in flight.
Mark the line of scrimmage at which the receiving team catches the Frisbee. If the ¡°kick off¡± travels out-of-bounds, the ¡°kicking¡± team must try again after marking off a five-step or five-yard penalty.
Advance the Frisbee by throwing a pass to a teammate just as you would in football. The quarterback is permitted to move around behind the line of scrimmage while looking for an open receiver.
Mark the spot of the Frisbee at the point of the catch if the offensive team makes a completion. The offensive and defensive teams line up again at the new line of scrimmage, and run the next play. Teams have four downs in which to score a touchdown, though variations to this rule exist. You may grant the offense a new set of downs following four completions, even if that team doesn’t score.
Score a single point for touchdowns for simplified play, or score the game like regular football, or six points for a touchdown, if you happen to have goalposts available for an extra point attempt. The point after should be challenging enough so that it is not automatic, so set the line of scrimmage for the try at midfield. You may also incorporate field goals for three points if you have the goalposts available.
Set time limits for each quarter, and designate a time keeper. Regulation football times of 15 minutes per quarter with a short half-time break work well.

Rules of Outdoor Shuffle Board

A modern version of an old English game named shovelboard, outdoor shuffleboard is generally associated with senior citizens due to its prevalence at senior centers and relative ease of play. Yet the game contains elements of strategy and competition that make it appropriate for all ages. The National Shuffleboard Association sets the rules for the competitive version in the United States. There is an indoor shuffleboard, but it’s played on a table. The outdoor game is played on a painted court.
A standard outdoor shuffleboard court is a rectangle 52 feet long by 10 feet wide. Each end has a baseline and a triangle divided into five sections, each marked with a certain number of points. Below the triangle is an area marked ¡°10 Off.¡± ¡°Dead lines¡± mark the 12 foot section in the middle. Each player needs a set of colored discs 6 inches in diameter and between 9/16 inch and 1-inch thick. Yellow and black are the traditional colors, but other colors are acceptable. Each player also needs a cue, a pole with two prongs at the end. The cue may be no longer than 6 feet, 3 inches.
Shuffleboard is played in half-rounds. For each half-round, the players alternate using the cue to slide discs from the 10-Off section of one end of the court toward the scoring triangle at the other end. Yellow plays first. Discs that don’t reach the far dead line, or slide past the 10 Off section, are removed from play, as are those that are played illegally. The other discs stay in play. The goal is to score points with your own discs while knocking your opponent¡¯s discs into the 10 Off area or keep him from scoring.
Scores are tallied at the end of each half-round. Players get the marked number of points for any disc fully within a section of the scoring triangle. Discs that rest on a line are not scored. Deduct 10 points for any disc that sits within the 10 Off area. The game continues until one player reaches 75 points. Once that happens, play continues until the end of the half-round. If the other player also reaches or exceeds 75 points, the one with the highest score at the end of the half-round wins.
The National Shuffleboard Association maintains a long list of penalties for tournament play. In more casual games, penalties are generally limited to offenses that directly affect the score of the half-round. For example, Washington State¡¯s Crestview Condos penalizes its players for playing an opponent¡¯s disc, leaning over the baseline while shooting, and allowing a disc to touch the 10 Off line before playing that disc. Discuss the penalties you will use with your opponent before the game begins.

Gas and Belching After Greasy & Fatty Food

Gas normally occurs after eating too fast, not chewing thoroughly or after eating gas-producing foods. However, gas can also occur due to gastritis, acid reflux, food intolerance and irritable bowel syndrome. These conditions flare up when certain foods are eaten that irritate the stomach. These foods may include greasy, fatty foods.
Gastritis is the inflammation of the stomach lining. This condition is usually short-lived, but it can also linger for months or years. In addition to eating foods that irritate the stomach lining, gastritis can also be caused by extreme stress, cocaine abuse, bile reflux, autoimmune disorders and a weakened immune system. Symptoms of gastritis are loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, indigestion, bloating and pain in the upper abdomen.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a medical condition that occurs when contents of the stomach reflux into the esophagus. After swallowing, food goes down the esophagus and through a band of muscles called the lower esophageal sphincter and then into the stomach. If this band of muscles does not close properly after eating, acid and food may reflux back into the esophagus, which can cause symptoms such as heartburn, coughing, wheezing, difficulty swallowing, hiccups and bloating. Eating fatty foods or spicy foods can trigger this condition. Other triggers are ingesting alcohol, caffeine, chocolates, carbonated beverages and citrus fruit.
Food intolerance is caused by stress or other psychological factors, as well as celiac disease and sensitivity to food additives. Eating extremely greasy foods or fatty foods may cause symptoms of food intolerance if any of the previous causes apply. Symptoms of food intolerance are swelling of the lips, face or hands, nausea, indigestion, cramping or diarrhea.
Irritable bowel syndrome is a condition that causes changes in bowel movements, abdominal pain and cramping after eating certain foods. According to Pub Med Health, it is not clear why people develop IBS, but in some cases it may develop after an intestinal infection. Any type of food or beverage can trigger bouts of IBS in sufferers. Symptoms of IBS are abdominal pain, bloating, gas, constipation and diarrhea after eating.

What Exercises Get You to Hit Harder in Football?

Like the vertical jump in basketball, a big tackle in football is essential. A big hit can win both the ball and also the respect of the opposing team. If you deliver enough big hits, your opponents may hesitate for a split second during play and give you a vital, and even game-winning, advantage. There are numerous exercises that you can preform to help develop your hitting power.
Thrusters develop all of the muscles used when delivering a big hit in football. This exercise requires you to use your arms and legs in synergy to generate a large amount of power. Stand with a barbell held at shoulder level and your feet shoulder-width apart. Push your hips back, bend your knees and descend into a deep squat position. Explosively extend your legs and drive up and out of the squat. Maintain the momentum of the bar and drive it overhead to arm’s length using your arms. Bend your arms, lower the bar back to your shoulders and repeat. This exercise is most effective when performed with heavy weights for low repetitions.
Barbell squat jumps target your thighs and hips. These muscles are responsible for developing the majority of your power when making a tackle in football. Place and hold a heavy barbell across your shoulders. Make sure you hold the bar down tightly. Stand with your feet hip-width apart. Push your hips back, bend your knees and squat down until your thighs are parallel to the floor. From this position drive up and leap into the air as high as your can. Land on the balls of your feet with your knees slightly bent and then descend into another repetition. Perform this exercise using a moderate to heavy weight for maximum benefit.
The sled bear crawl mimics the scrimmage starting position and develops the muscles responsible for driving you forward and into the opposition when blocking or tackling. Load up a weighted sled with a heavy weight and fix the tow straps around your waist. Alternatively you can use a chest harness. Bend your knees, lean forward and place your hands on the ground. Move one foot slightly in front of the other so you are ready to drive forward. Keeping your hips low, move your hands and feet to pull the sled forward for a predetermined length of time or distance.
The high pull exercise develops hip extension strength and power. The hips are essential for generating a big hit. Place a barbell on the floor and stand with your feet hip-width apart with your toes just under the bar. Bend your knees and lean forward. Grasp the bar with a shoulder-width overhand grip. Straighten your arms and lower your hips below your shoulders. With your chest up and lower back tightly arched, explosively pull the bar off the ground and stand up. Pull the bar up the front of your body to lower chest-height while keeping your elbows high and your wrists straight. Lower the bar back to the floor and repeat. This exercise should be performed as dynamically as possible.

Games for Baseball Practice

Running a youth baseball practice is about teaching players the fundamentals of the game. The key to doing this is finding a way to hold your players’ interests throughout the entire practice. You can go through fundamental infield, outfield and batting drills, but you must combine these basics with fun-to-play games that your young players will enjoy.
Line five of your players along the third-base line. Place one player at home plate, the next at third base, the next about 60 feet past the player at third base and two additional players at 60-foot intervals. This should put the last player fairly close to the left-field foul pole. Line two other groups of five players parallel to the original group. Give the first player in each line the baseball–the one at home plate or the equivalent spot in the other lines–and have him throw the ball to the next player on your signal. That player has to catch the ball and then throw it to the next player in line. The relay continues in this manner all the way to the end of the line and then it reverses until the catcher has the ball. The team that gets the ball back to the catcher first wins. There’s one rule in this game: the ball cannot hit the ground. If any player drops the ball or makes an uncatchable throw, they must start the relay over again. This game helps players with their throwing and catching.
This is a game that young players love in practice. Divide your team into groups of three or four. If you have three groups of four players at practice, send the first group of four into the dugout to prepare for a round of batting practice. Put another group of four in the infield and the third group of four around the outfield. Send the first batter to the plate for batting practice. He gets three strikes to put the ball in play. If he gets a hit, he stays on base. If he is retired on a ground ball or fly ball, he is out. Then, the next batter comes up. Each batter in the group gets three at bats. After the last at bat, the next group of four hitters moves in for batting practice. Then, the group in the outfield moves into the infield and the group that had been at bat goes to the outfield. Keep proceeding in this manner until each group has had a chance to hit the ball. The team that comes up with the most hits wins the drill.
This is a great game to help pitchers learn the value of control. Line all of your team up behind the pitcher’s mound. The first player takes the ball and throws a pitch from the pitching rubber to a coach who is catching and calling the pitch. If it is a strike, the pitcher is “safe” and he goes to the back of the line. If it is a ball, he is on the “hot seat.” The next player throws a pitch. If it is a strike and the previous pitcher threw a ball, then the first pitcher is knocked out. If the second pitcher throws a ball, then the first pitcher is safe and the second pitcher is on the hot seat. Continue along in this manner until all players have been knocked out and there is one “king of the hill” left. You may want to reward that player by letting him pitch in the next game.

What Do Soccer Players Wear?

You already know that it doesn’t matter what you wear to play a pickup game of soccer and that some form of the game can be played just about anywhere. Playing on an official team is a different matter. Rules governing clothing vary depending on the type of soccer league and where it’s located. For serious teams, the regulations of FIFA, which governs World Cup play, are generally followed. The team or league you play for often provides uniforms for players.
Most soccer teams outfit players with a T-shirt or jersey in the team colors. A number to identify players is marked on the back of the jersey. Jerseys are generally short-sleeved, although long-sleeved shirts are not uncommon and perfectly acceptable. If the weather is cold you can wear a long-sleeved shirt under your short-sleeved uniform top, but FIFA regulations state that the sleeves must be the same color as the top shirt. A goalkeeper’s shirt must be a different color than those of the rest of the team.
Field players always wear shorts made of lightweight material with an elastic waist. FIFA regulations allow for an extra pair of shorts under the main shorts as long as they are the same color. One-piece suits are not allowed in soccer. A player’s number is often printed on the shorts, but not always. Goalies can wear long pants, often with padded hips.
Socks and shin guards are required protective equipment for FIFA play. USA Youth Soccer, which oversees the majority of soccer leagues for kids, also requires that shin guards be worn for all practices in addition to games. FIFA prohibits items that can cause injury to other players but notes that headgear, face masks and other items made of soft and padded material are acceptable. Referees inspect players before a game and may disapprove the use of protective gear. Goalies are allowed to wear gloves.
Soccer shoes come in a few different styles, depending on the type of playing surface for the game. You will typically wear cleats to play games and practice on natural, outdoor surfaces. Cleats are molded into the bottom of soccer shoes, or are detachable, and help provide traction on slippery or unstable surfaces. For playing on indoor surfaces or artificial turf outdoors, shoes have grooves and patterns on the bottom, rather than cleats. Metal cleats are not prohibited for FIFA play, but youth and high school leagues set their own rules regarding cleat types. Referees will check the bottoms of shoes to ensure cleats are well-maintained and not sharp enough to injure other players.

Do Solar Lights Charge on a Cloudy Day?

Solar lights are easy to set up and require no electricity, making them a simple and eco-friendly addition to your outdoor landscaping. Cloudy days will interfere with these lights, however, slowing, though not stopping, their ability to charge. While solar lights’ abilities vary by manufacturer, most are able to stay shining through the occasional cloudy day, though using them after long periods without adequate sunlight can eventually weaken their charging capabilities.
Solar lights operate on power packs that contain solar panels, control systems and batteries, usually nickel cadmium or lead acid batteries. The panels collect sunlight, and the control systems process the sunlight into power. The batteries then store the power until you are ready to use the lights. The time needed to fully charge batteries will vary among solar light manufacturers, as will the time the lights run when the batteries are charged. Cloudy days will impact these estimates.
Clouds diffuse sunlight, which cuts the productivity of your lights’ panels. The panels will still charge during cloud cover, but not as efficiently as on a sunny day. When clouds cover the sun, the systems’ power production is cut by about half. The U.S. Department of Energy estimates that in the winter, when days are shorter and generally cloudier, your lights will operate for a 30- to 50-percent shorter amount of time than in the sunnier seasons.
Many solar lights are able to store sufficient power to operate properly over several cloudy days, but when you operate your lights without fully charging the battery, you risk reducing the overall life of the battery. While the solar panels in your lights generally are weather-resistant, you should avoid using your solar lights in prolonged periods of bad weather, particularly if you live in a region with harsh winters. You can conserve power by switching your lights off; they will continue to collect solar energy even when turned off.
Although you can’t control the weather, proper positioning and maintenance of your solar lights will ensure they soak up as much energy as possible, even on cloudy days. Make sure they are in an area where they receive maximum sunlight all day long, not blocked by shadows from vegetation or buildings. Also, keep your solar panels clean. Bird droppings and other debris will hinder their ability to collect sunlight. Always be sure to turn the power switch to off when you store your lights.
Under the right conditions, clouds can actually increase the amount of power your lights’ panels absorb. When puffy cumulus clouds cover the sun, at times the sunbeams will penetrate holes in the clouds. When this happens, your panels absorb not only the direct sunlight, but also the sunlight reflected off the cloud. Most solar panels are designed to handle such bursts of energy, which usually do not last long.