Football players wear a range of protective equipment but the nature of the sport makes them susceptible to injuries. For example, shoulder injuries are the fourth most common injury in American football players, according to “The American Journal of Sports Medicine.¡± As football players progress in ability levels, they run faster, hit harder and take more risks, making them even more susceptible to shoulder injuries.
The types of shoulder injuries in football players vary, and are commonly related to the playing position. For example, quarterbacks are susceptible to shoulder tendinitis from the constant overhand throwing motion. The two most common types of shoulder injuries are a shoulder dislocation and a shoulder separation. Other common shoulder injuries include anterior instability, rotator cuff injury, sprains, strains, contusions and fractures.
Shoulder injuries typically occur from contact. The contact can come from another player as a result from a tackle, block or collision, along with an impact with the ground. Player-to-player contact accounts for about 58 percent of shoulder injuries while the ground causes about 22 percent. Another 20 percent of injuries come from overuse or training injuries.
Football players can take several preventative steps to lessen the chance of a shoulder injury. The first step is to wear properly-fitted equipment, specifically the shoulder pads. Fitting should occur after a pre-season health and wellness evaluation. After being fitted for protective equipment, use proper tackling and blocking technique. Following a sport-specific strength and conditioning program can improve the strength, stability and balance of the shoulder joint to prevent injuries.
Shoulder injuries range from mild to severe, with 44 percent of football players returning to full-contact play within one week. During the one week, players will use a combination of rest, ice and compression wraps to promote healing. Only 22 percent of the shoulder injuries required more than three weeks of rest and physical therapy with only 6 percent requiring surgery. One-third of collegiate football players, however, required surgery after a shoulder injury.
Basketball is a fast-paced game that requires the knowledge and instinct to perform quickly and properly. The sport of basketball requires five basic skills. While some players might be more experienced with some skills than others, it is best to have at least some ability in all five areas.
Dribbling is an important skill for all basketball players. This skill will allow you to move up and down the court, maneuver past defenders and execute plays. Proper dribbling requires ball-handling skills and knowledge of how to spread your fingers for ball control. It is also best if you know how to dribble equally well with both hands.
In order to score points in basketball, you need to shoot the ball into the hoop. This requires the ability to properly hold and throw the ball into the air toward the basket while avoiding defenders. A proper shot requires precise aiming, arm extension and lift from the legs. There are different types of shots you need to learn, including jump shots, layups and free throws.
Running is a big part of basketball. In a full-court game, you will find yourself running back and forth as the game quickly transitions between offense and defense. When you have the ball, running will help you to avoid defenders and get to the basket quicker. On defense, you often will find yourself needing to run after the opponent, especially during fast breaks.
Passing is another skill that when mastered can help you become a complete basketball player. Basketball is a team sport that involves finding a teammate who is open for a shot. The ability to pass the ball to this player can make the difference between scoring and not scoring. Really great passers are an important part of a basketball team and usually the ones who set up scoring plays.
Jumping is another skill that can define how good a basketball player is. Jumping is involved in offense during the jump ball in the beginning, while taking shots and sometimes while trying to catch a pass. On defensive you will need the ability to jump when trying to block a shot or a pass. Being able to out jump your opponent for a rebound also is important.
A punch to the jaw causes the head to suddenly spin around. This quick motion of causes trauma to the brain that knocks the recipient out leaving him unconscious. Points on the jaw that are especially vulnerable to knockouts are the sides of the chin, and where the jaw is attaches to the skull.
When the jaw is punched, the head quickly accelerates around. After a fraction of a second, it quickly decelerates as muscles, tendons, and bones prevent the head from spinning any further. The brain inside the skull is floating in fluid. It accelerates slower than the rest of the head. This forces it to crash into the inside of the skull when the head stops.
When the brain slams into the inside of the skull, it suffers trauma. It then bounces off the inside of the skull and slams into the opposite side. This causes even more trauma. Depending on the force of the punch, this can happen several times before the brain comes to rest inside the skull.
The trauma to the brain stimulates an overwhelming number of neurotransmitters to fire at the same time. This essentially overloads the nervous system sending it into a state of temporary paralysis. The person who is hit in the jaw loses consciousness and his muscles relax. The injured person falls to the ground with no memory of being hit.
A person who is knocked out by a punch to the jaw suffers a severe concussion. It can take anywhere from several seconds to several minutes to regain consciousness. It all depends on the severity of the brain trauma. In mild cases, the person who is knocked out can shake off the punch with little more than a headache. In severe cases, brain trauma from a knockout punch to the jaw can cause cerebral bleeding and death.
Football is one of the most physically demanding sports in the world, and players need to fuel their bodies appropriately for optimal performance. Diets with caloric intakes twice that of the average person are not uncommon during the most grueling training periods. The exact amount of calories a player needs depends on several factors, including weight goals. However, football players generally need to eat a lot more calories than the average person.
Metabolic equivalents are a measure of the amount of oxygen required to fuel the body during an activity. Activities with higher metabolic equivalents require more energy and, thus, more calories. Football is an extremely physically exerting sport, placing a high demand on the body to supply energy, repair tissue and replace depleted glycogen stores. Football has a metabolic equivalent of 6.0, making it six times as demanding as complete rest.
A player’s energy requirements are influenced by basal metabolic rate, or the amount of energy his body needs to perform basic functions such as respiration and cardiac function. Age, sex, weight, physical activity and genetics all influence basal metabolic rate. In general, younger football players have higher rates than older; men have higher rates than women; and larger players such as offensive linemen have higher rates than smaller players such as quarterbacks or defensive backs.
While a typical adult needs about 1,800 to 2,200 calories a day, football players require quite a bit more. Football players need about 50 calories per 2.2 pounds (one kilogram) of body weight, according to the National Strength and Conditioning Association. Therefore, a 407-pound NFL player such as the late Korey Stringer could need more than 9,000 calories. A 155-pound youth player, on the other hand, needs about 3,500 calories.
Healthy adults need about 50 to 100 grams of carbohydrates each day, and about 45 to 65 percent of total caloric intake should come from carbohydrates. Football players, however, are at an increased need for carbohydrates due to the need to refuel muscle glycogen. About five to six grams of carbohydrates per 2.2 pounds of body weight is required for football, according to the National Strength and Conditioning Association.
About 20 to 35 percent of the diet should come from fat sources, according to the American College of Sports Medicine. Fat is a source of energy, and high-fat diets of about 35 percent of total caloric intake have been shown to improve performance and increase energy levels. While a diet extremely high in fat can be associated with cardiovascular disease, football players expend so many calories that this is not a concern, according to the National Strength and Conditioning Association.
Healthy adults need about 0.8 grams of protein per 2.2 pounds of body weight, according to the National Strength and Conditioning Association. Football players need about twice this amount of protein to help repair damaged tissue and promote growth of new tissue. Football players should consume about 1.5 to 2.0 grams of protein per 2.2 pounds of body weight. Furthermore, protein should comprise at least 10 to 15 percent of total caloric intake.
One inch can mean the difference between a winning goal or a tied game. A soccer ball must be all the way across the line to score. Various rules apply to soccer scoring. For instance, the ball can cross the goal on the ground on in the air. As long as the ball completely corsses the line, the attacking team wins the point.
According to the International Football Association, a goal is scored when the whole of the ball passes over the goal line, between the goalposts and under the cross bar. The outside of the goal is determined by the outermost edge of the goal posts and cross bar. If the ball does not fully cross the plane created by these three bars, a goal is not awarded.
During a soccer game, the head referee is responsible for determining whether a ball fully crosses the plane of the goal. In some games, a head referee is aided by linesmen who help advise the head referee on calls. Linesmen are especially useful for determining a goal because they follow the movement of the ball from the sidelines. Their position at the side of the field gives linesmen a perfect vantage point for seeing directly across the plane of the goal.
Another consideration for ball position in soccer is out-of-bounds calls. A ball is only out of bounds when it crosses over the out-of-bounds line completely. Often, out of bounds is a wide white strip of chalk or paint. The painted portion is considered in-bounds in soccer. The ball is only out when it crosses completely over the line. Furthermore, in cases where the ball is questionably out of bounds, the ball is only out of play when indicated by the referee.
At times, the ball’s direction is dictated by some sort of interference that can include hitting the referee, a corner flag or a goal post. In any of these cases, if the ball remains in bounds, it is still considered in play. If a ball headed out of bounds hits a referee and stays in bounds, play continues. If a ball headed into the goal hits a referee and is blocked, no goal is scored. And, if a ball hits a referee and ricochets into the goal, a goal is awarded.